Rural water supply
Description of the approach
Innovative community-oriented model of decentralized water supply, maintenance and servicing was developed by DESPRO / Skat. It has been implemented in village communities since 2007.
During Phases І and ІІ of DESPRO (2007-12) 78 projects of communities on water supply improvement were supported. General investment sum amounted approximately to 37.3 million UAH. The contribution of Swiss Confederation amounted to almost 13 million UAH, contribution of local budget – to 6.3 million UAH, contribution of public – to 18 million UAH. This allowed to provide sustainable water supply to more than 40 thousand village residents from more than 16 thousand households, and build 450 km of new water pipeline networks.
In Phase ІІІ (2013-2017) it is intended to support about 70 projects in DESPRO target regions.
Rural water supply projects are selected on annual basis, through conduction of oblast contests. That is why project support is integrated into the system of planning, budgeting and monitoring at the level of oblast and respective raions.
Support of projects by DESPRO envisions co-funding of their implementation, as well as necessary consultations and training. According to DESPRO rules, project co-funding does not exceed 40% of the total project cost. However, in practice, this percentage is even lower: it fluctuates within the 25-30% range. The rest of funds for project implementation are provided by budgets of different levels (village, raion, oblast), public, and, sometimes, sponsors.
Planning and implementation of projects is the responsibility of village councils. At the same time, public participation through social mobilization is one of the key requirements during project implementation. Social mobilization envisions direct engagement of public in planning, financial participation in project implementation, and after-project activities.
From technical standpoint, projects concern creation of a centralized water supply system, connected to the local water intakes (rarely – to water mains). The system is designed in a way, that allows to supply water to all households, located within a project’s target area, as a rule – to the whole settlement. Development and construction are conducted in accordance to state construction norms and standards.
Establishment of an efficient maintenance and servicing regime is an important condition of ensuring sustainable water supply. The issues to be considered include property rights and asset transfer for servicing, selection of organizational and legal form of water supply operator, calculation and setting of the tariff charged for water.